New Songdo City, Incheon
This new ‘eco-city’ constructed on marshland near Incheon, South Korea, is a private development by Gale International, supported by new ‘hard infrastructure’ provided by Incheon, and designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox and Arup, amongst others. However, the ‘soft infrastructure’ is arriving courtesy of Cisco which envisages a layer of urban services supporting residents and workers in the city, including direct access to healthcare, education, local municipal services, video conferencing, information and recreational facilities, amongst other everyday urban activities. These are delivered over high-speed networks and to multiple platforms in the home and office. With such developments, Cisco suggests embedding such an ‘urban services layer’ into the city can generate significant additional returns for developers, ranging from an extra US$3 per m2 as ‘standard’, to US$8 per m2 in an ‘advanced’ implementation, to US$13 per m2 in a ‘transformational’ development, in which smart city services are integrated from the very beginning of the project.